The following is a breakdown of a basic asphalt roofing system.
2. Drip Edge
3. Ice and Water Shield
4. Felt Paper and Synthetic Underlayment
6. Starter Shingle
8. Flashings and Skylights
Before installation, it is important to clear the roof deck of all debris and dust. This is because certain products need to stick to the roof deck. Anything impeding this will harm the roofing system. Then the deck is inspected to ensure that it is not damaged, and for areas that may show signs of previous water saturation. We highly recommend the removal of existing shingles from the roof deck. Failure to do so will void the manufacturer’s warranties.
2. Drip Edge:
Drip edge is a thin but long piece of metal flashing that goes around the lower eave of the roof. It can also be installed on the rake edges. Drip edge extends the shingles out further away from the roof and also forms a cap at the edge where the ice and water shield adheres. Drip edge can ensure that no water passes between the eaves trough and the fascia, and in instances where no trough exists, it can push the water coming off the roof further away from the fascia. This is good if you have a wooden fascia and want the stain to last longer. Drip edge is a product that is not completely necessary, though beneficial to the roofing system.
3. Ice and Water Shield:
Ice and water shield is probably the most important aspect of the roofing system. It is a synthetic, impermeable membrane that adheres to the roof deck. It is composed of tar and usually some form of rubber. It reseals any nails that penetrate through and ensures a complete seal wherever it is installed.
Abbot Roofing always installs a minimum of six feet of ice and water shied from the bottom eave of the roof, ice and water shield under all valley flashing, wall flashing around all skylights as well as in any areas that see significant snow and ice buildup.
Ice and watershield being installed
4. Felt Paper and Synthetic Underlayment
Felt paper is essentially a paper product that is saturated with tar. This makes the product impermeable to water. There are many grades of the product but most roofers use 15lbs felt. Felt paper, in one form or another has been used in the roofing system for well over a century.h2>Synthetic Underlayment:
This is a new product. It is essentially a synthetic tarp like material that is used instead of felt paper.
After the installation of ice and water shield, Abbot Roofing always installs the minimum of 15 lb. felt paper on the balance of the roof. This ensures that the entire roof is covered in one form of underlay or another.
Valleys are installed in areas where two roofs meet to make an inside corner. There are many ways to install or to flash a valley. Some use metal valleys, as we do, others weave shingles to the form of the valley.
Valleys are areas where there is the largest amount of water buildup. For this reason it is important to ensure that they are well flashed.
6. Starter shingles:
The started is the first course of shingles that are installed along the lower edges, the gable edges and up the tapered or straight sides of the valley. They are installed as a first course to protect the roof where the shingles meet each other. On the sides they provide a straight edge, and support the overhang of the shingles. Most manufacturers provide their own shingle starters.
Note: Most asphalt shingle manufacturers have one of each of these styles of shingles, though some are not available in certain regions.
A. 3-Tab or Traditional:
Three tab shingles were once the mainstay of the roofing industry though they are slowly being replaced by the architectural style. Many in the industry believe that within a few years this style will be phased out.
These shingles have quickly become the dominant style in the industry. They are slightly more expensive than the traditional shingles, but offer a much longer life span and a greater warranty.
*CONSIDERED BEST VALUE*
8. Architectural SBS:
Though SBS shingles have been around for a long time, the product is only now coming to the forefront. They are made from the same materials that are used in torch-on application roofing systems, they are far more durable, and may prove to have a much longer life than other architectural shingles. They do, however, come at a premium price.
Premium or designer shingles are where we lump the rest of the asphalt roofing industries shingle products. There are countless designer shingles across every brand. They offer a myriad of styles, and distinctive features that can make any house look unique. Links to all manufacturers’ premium shingles are available on their individual product pages. Feel free to browse.
Traditional shingle: cambridge shingles: One type of premium shingle: Crownslate
8. Flashings and Skylights:
Wall flashing comes in an array of sizes and colours. They are usually shaped in as an L and either bent at a 90 or 45 degree angle with another drip angle on the lower edge. These are installed anywhere a roof meets a wall, chimney or some other form of obstacle that does not come with its own form of flashing, such as a skylight. Underneath wall flashing we install step flashing. These are small pieces of metal, again bent in an L that ensures water cannot circumvent the edges of the shingles. (See Photos)
Venting is also very important to the roofing system. Adequate venting ensures that heat and moisture does not build up in the attic area. The venting system is composed of the input vents, found in the vented soffit under the bottom eave of the roof, and the exhaust vents at the top of the roof. There are several different styles of vent such as pergola vents, mushroom vents or ridge vents. All of these offer different styles and venting capacity.
Also important to note: bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans are required to be vented outside the home and not into the attic. They require their own style of vents called clampet vents or goose necks. These vents are made with a flap on the interior to stop any exterior air from entering the home.
The final part of the roofing system is capping. These are custom shingles ordered separately from the main shingle style being installed. They are made specifically to cover the hip and ridge sections of the roof. They either come in the same or a complimentary colour to the installed style of shingle. Be it premium or architectural. For capping with traditional shingles, the industry still just uses split traditional shingles.